According to I Samuel
17, it was David's victory over the Philistine warrior Goliath that drew
King Saul's attention to him (although according to 1 Samuel 16, David
was brought to his court to raise the king's spirit through his musical
abilities.) The following is the tale of David and Goliath as expanded
and embellished by the midrash.
and Goliath were cousins. David's great-grandmother was Ruth the Moabite,
and Goliath's was Orpah, Ruth's sister and sister-in-law. Both women were
daughters of Eglon, King of Moab.
American poet Charles
Reznikoff (1894-1976)[*] has this to say in Autobiography,
Because Orpah shed four tears when she parted from her mother-in-law Naomi,
she was granted the privilege of giving birth to four giants. Goliath
was the strongest and the greatest of these. And because she walked forty
steps with Naomi before turning back to Moab, Goliath was permitted to
show off his great strength and skill to the Israelites for forty days
before being killed by David.
David's three older brothers joined Saul's army to fight the Philistines.
One day Jesse gave David some parched corn and bread and said to him,
"Bring this food to your brothers in the valley of Elah and see how they
are doing. When you are there, try to summon up the courage to fight this
giant Goliath, for it is your duty as a member of Judah to protect the
Benjaminite Saul, just as the first Judah once watched out for his youngest
David came to Elah and brought food to his brothers. When he saw the nine-foot
champion of the Philistines standing in the valley below, he decided to
fight him. It was evening when David arrived at Saul's camp. And he heard
Goliath fling his challenge at the Israelite soldiers as he had done every
night and morning for forty days: "Send a man out to fight me. If he kills
me, the Philistines shall become your slaves. But if I kill him, you shall
be our slaves." And as always, Goliath timed his challenge to coincide
with the Israelites' reciting of the Sh'ma, for he took special
pleasure in frustrating their devotion to God.
When Saul heard that David wished to fight Goliath, he gave the young
shepherd his royal armor, which was twice David's size, but astonishingly
it fit David perfectly. Then Saul knew that this young Bethlehemite had
been anointed to be his successor, for holy oil has the power to transform
a person's stature.
To allay Saul's jealousy, David returned the king's armor and went forth
to meet Goliath dressed as a simple shepherd, armed only with a slingshot
and his staff. Five smooth pebbles flew into David's hand of their own
will and fused there into one stone. Just so, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Aaron
and God fuse their wills together to safeguard Israel.
marched out to meet Goliath. As he neared him, David cast his evil eye
upon the giant, and Goliath became rooted to the ground and stricken with
leprosy. Then Goliath cursed David, "Am I a dog that you come to fight
me with a stick? I will feed your carcass to the sheep!"
Then David knew that Goliath was doomed, for his mind was so confused
that he thought that sheep could eat meat. And he shouted back at the
giant, "And I will feed your carcass to the birds!"
When he heard that, Goliath looked up to see if there were any birds flying
overhead. As he did so, David shot his stone through the space in the
armor and hit Goliath right between the eyes. The giant began to fall
backward, but an angel descended and pushed him forward so that he landed
on the mouth that had so long cursed God.
Goliath was wearing several layers of armor, and David did not know how
to remove it to cut off the giant's head. Then Uriah the Hittite stepped
forward and told David that he knew how to take off the armor, but he
would only tell him if David promised to find him an Israelite wife. David
accepted, and Uriah showed him that the suits of armor were all fastened
at Goliath's heels. Then David removed the armor and cut off Goliath's
head. And soon after, Bathsheba became Uriah's wife.
When the Philistines saw that their champion was dead, they fled in panic.
The Israelites pursued them and looted their camp. Then David brought
Goliath's head to Saul, and the king took David into his service. And
the people loved David even more than Saul.
I do not believe that
David killed Goliath.
It must have been
you will find the name in the list of David's captains.
But, whoever it was, he was no fool
when he took off the helmet
and put down the sword and the spear and the shield
and said, The weapons you have given me are good,
but they are not mine;
I will fight in my own way
with a couple of pebbles and a sling.
Charles Reznikoff's poem appears in Modern Poems on the Bible: An Anthology,
Ed. David Curzon. © 1994, published by JPS.
Talmud Sotah 42b; Midrash Ruth Rabbah 1:4, 14; MIdrash Shmuel 20:106-108,
21:109-109; Tanhuma V, 1:207-208; Tanhuma Emor 4; Zohar III, 272a; Midrash
Vayikra Rabbah 10:7, 21:2; English language sources: Louis Ginsburg, Legends
of the Jews IV, 85-89.
in The Classic Tales: 4,000 Years of Jewish Lore, Ed. Ellen Frankel.
© Copyright 1995, published by Jason Aronson.
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